Considered the cradle of civilization, Mesopotamia was where the human history began to be written with their old system of cuneiform predecessor to the phonetic writing system used today. It was also there that probably made of wood solid wheel was invented and rolled first.
In this Middle East region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, but specifically the current territory of Iraq, which had a fertile land caused many people of different cultures to settle among them, the Sumerians, the Acadians, the Amorites, the Assyrians, the Chaldeans and the Islamists. Each with its moments of peak at different times.
The first villages were created around 5,000 BC after the invention of the plow and the beginning of the cultivation of cereals. But it was not until 2,270 BC that King Sargon of Akkad in Mesopotamia unifies and power exchange continues until conquered by the Greeks led by Alexander the Great. During this period several large sovereign stood since Gilgamesh (a mythological figure) through Sargon after Hammurabi, Nebuchadnezzar to Cyrus the Great King of Persia .
The main sciences were studied astronomy, mathematics and medicine, astronomy and science serving the main base later to the Greeks and Arabs. Right in his contribution was the creation of the first code of laws and preserved today known as Code of Hammurabi, his goal was to homogenize the kingdom legally and ensure a common culture.
In religion there was a large number of gods who represented the image and likeness of humans and had a confused conception of life after death, but had great influence on Egyptian and Greek mythologies and in the monotheistic religions such as Judaism.
In the field of Art Nebuchadnezzar II is responsible for the famous Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world even no trace of the monument that proves their existence being found.