Saturday, August 1, 2015

4 . Ancient History

The Ancient History or better known as Antiquity begins with the invention of writing around 3500 BC and lasts until 476 AD with the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
At the time the emergence of writing the life of men occurs in various parts of the planet was going through many changes. The agricultural revolution and domestication of animals did the man change the nomadic life by sedentary life. The men then began to clump into fertile land forming the villages and later civilizations with government, commerce and military.
The first civilizations arose in Mesopotamia, the Middle East region which was considered the cradle of civilization. Around 2270 BC Sargon unifies and creates the first Mesopotamian empire (Acadian Empire) that lasts up to 2100 BC.
After a period of protracted conflicts around 1800 BC the Babylonian king , Hammurabi , performs a number of achievements in the region creating the 1st Babylonian Empire. The Babylonian empire underwent the Sumerians, the Acadians and Assyrians. To govern such different people, Hammurabi organized the first code of laws, the Code of Hammurabi . The code basically defended the right to life and property. The Babylonian empires lasted until 1200 BC with the domination of the Assyrian Empire.
It is also during this period that occur the first references to the Hebrews that had their origin in Mesopotamia. Semi-nomadic people organized in small groups that migrated to the fertile regions of the Nile and remained there until 1250 BC, when they were led by Moses back to Palestine (known as Exodus). Had its heyday around 1000 BC when King David unites Judah and Israel. And going up to 600 BC with the end of the kingdom of Israel and the Jewish captivity in Babylon.
The Assyrian Empire that has its height during the period 1,200 BC to 700 BC extends to the conquest of the Medes.
After the Assyrian defeat, Babylon is again the most important city in Mesopotamia. The empire was again reconstituted and live a new zenith under the rule of Nebuchadnezzar around 600 BC. His empire lasted until 539 BC with the occupation by the Persian Cyrus the Great.
The Persian empire goes to 331 BC with the conquest of Mesopotamia by Alexander the Great. It is the height of the Macedonian Empire that lasted until 323 BC with the death of Alexander the Great and the division of his reign.
In this period the Roman Empire was already formed and in 275 BC starts the period of conquests. The Roman Empire has its peak around 133 BC after conquering Greece and take full control of the Mediterranean Sea. And will until 476 AD with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and early Middle Ages.

Summary - Apogee of each Empire

EmpireStartEndName Important
Acadian Empire2270 BC2100 BCSargon
Babylonian Empire1800 BC1200 BCHammurabi
Assyrian Empire1200 BC700 BCSargon II
2nd Imp . Babylonian600 BC539 BCNebuchadnezzar
Persian Empire539 BC331 BCCyrus the Great
Macedonian Empire331 BC323 BCAlexander the Great
Roman Empire275 BC476 A.D.
During antiquity other major empires were also created, some examples are :
  • The Egyptian civilization that developed in the fertile valley of the Nile and was unified around 3200 BC forming a centralized government in the hands of a single ruler - the pharaoh Menes. And going up to 40 BC when Egypt becomes the province of Rome .
  • The Chinese civilizations , Indian and Japanese in Asia.
  • And the Maya civilization in America.

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