Tuesday, May 23, 2017

60. Arab Spring

       



Arab Spring is internationally known as a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Middle East and North Africa since December 18, 2010. To date, there have been revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt, a civil war in Libya and Syria, there have also been major protests in Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Iraq, Jordan, Oman and Yemen and minor protests in Kuwait, Lebanon, Mauritania, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Western Sahara. The protests have shared techniques of civil resistance in sustained campaigns involving strikes, demonstrations, marches and rallies, as well as the use of social media such as Facebook, Twitter and Youtube, to organize, communicate, and raise awareness of the international community in the face of attempts repression and Internet censorship in parts of the States.
Social networks played a considerable role in recent movements against dictatorship in the Arab countries and would not have been the same without the resources provided by the internet.
In December 2010 a young Tunisian, Mohamed Bouazizi, set fire to his body as a form of protest against the living conditions in the country they lived. He did not know, but the desperate act, which ended with his life, would result to what later came to be called the Arab Spring. Protests spread across Tunisia, taking President Zine el-Abdine Ben Ali to flee to Saudi Arabia only ten days later. Ben Ali was in power since November 1987.
Until now, demonstrations have resulted in the overthrow of three heads of state: President of Tunisia, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, fled to Saudi Arabia on January 14, following protests from the Jasmine Revolution, in Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned on February 11, 2011, after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year tenure, and in Libya, President Muammar al-Gaddafi, killed in firefight after being captured on 20 October and tortured by rebels, dragged by a truck in public, dying with a bullet in the head. During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intention to resign: Yemen's president, Ali Abdullah Saleh, announced that it would not seek reelection in 2013, ending his tenure of 35 years. The President of Sudan, Omar al-Bashir also announced he would not seek re-election in 2015, as well as Nouri al-Maliki, the Iraqi prime minister whose term ends in 2014, although there have been increasingly violent demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation. Protests in Jordan have also caused the resignation of the government, resulting in the statement of former Prime Minister and Ambassador to Israel Marouf Bakhit as the new prime minister by King Abdullah.


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