Tuesday, May 23, 2017

34. Independence of Spanish America

       


The wars of independence in Spanish America starts the nineteenth century, from 1808 until 1829. During this period there were two independent nations in the Americas: the United States in 1776 and Haiti in 1804.
In 1806, when Napoleon Bonaparte with the continental blockade forbade European countries to market with the UK, under threat of attacking countries where the orders were not met. Portugal, faithful ally of the United Kingdom was in a predicament, not solving the time. Napoleon, going to invade Portugal, Spain went through. The king of Spain, Ferdinand VII, was arrested and lost his throne by order of Napoleon, who, instead, placed his brother Joseph Bonaparte. The Spanish people did not obey to the French king, and the colonies also refused to do so.
With a weakened Europe, Cologne felt it was the right time to fight for their independence. However, Spain was weakened because it was taken by the French army of Napoleon who actually wanted to end the trade in the UK, so that, France became the largest European power and not the British Empire. The Enlightenment ideas still circulated throughout Europe, as well as the recent French Revolution. These ideas came to the colony as a result of trade. For the wars of independence, the settlers were based on Enlightenment ideals and the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America.
To be a very long, complex, comprehensive and possess many peculiarities process, the causes of independence varied from place to place. Some causes of global influence, as the French Revolution and the Independence of the United States of America, acted more like standard as a direct cause.
In North America, the first Spanish colony to become independent was Mexico, adopting, first monarchical government, and then the Republican government. In South America, the first was the independence of Venezuela, which was completed with the independence of Colombia and Ecuador. In Central America, the region was divided into five countries: Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. After a few years, it was the turn of the islands of Central America: the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Cuba.
The independence movement was the natural result of the fragmentation of the emerging countries. There were no changes in the administrative structure, there was not even social change. Disappeared commercial monopoly and there was an impoverishment of many Latin American regions that could not compete with industries in Europe. Independence is not linked to any economic or social improvement or administration.
After complex processes occurring in later years resulted in 16 Latin American countries, alongside the year of independence: Argentina (1810), Bolivia (1822), Colombia (1821), Costa Rica (1829) , Chile (1818), Ecuador (1821), El Salvador (1839), Guatemala ( 839), Honduras (1839), Mexico (1821), Nicaragua (1838), Panama (1821), Paraguay (1811), Peru (1821), Dominican Republic (1844), Uruguay (1828) and Venezuela (1821). Cuba and Puerto Rico in 1898 after the Spanish-American War.




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