Tuesday, May 23, 2017

25. Protestant Reformation


The Protestant Reformation was a movement that emerged within the Catholic Church as the doubts of the faithful and religious discussions. The Renaissance ideas appreciated the man and his achievements, commercial expansion led to the clash of values and cultures and caused a "rethink" critical world hitherto dominated by the Roman clergy. The moral decay of priests favored the emergence of numerous sects which challenged some Catholic dogmas and proposed a life of detachment from material goods. Another factor that demoralized the authority of the Catholic Church was the crisis of the papacy, which was the control that the French kings had on the Pope during the fourteenth century, with the transfer of the seat of the Vatican from Rome to France. The other countries have challenged the Church came to have two popes, one in Rome and another in France.
In this European context, Germany in the fifteenth century, without a centralized power, divided between various feudal lords and practicing an agrarian economy, cost to develop economically. The people were crushed by feudal taxes and tithes. The Church gathered there numerous taxes and owned large tracts of land, and to make matters worse, sold the church offices to the highest bidder and offered forgiveness of sins by paying indulgence.
The outrage grew when Tetzel the monk went to Germany for selling bulls in order to raise more money for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica. Martin Luther, German monk , criticized the abuses and began to publicly denounce the corruption of the Roman Church and expounded his ideas became known as the 95 Theses of Luther.
The Lutheran doctrine caused a division among the German nobles, many of them eager to seize the goods of the clergy, to increase their domains. The support of these nobles was decisive for the ideas of Luther prosper. Assembled by Emperor Charles V to return to the Catholic faith, many nobles protested, giving the name to the Protestants who joined the new religion. Without reaching an agreement, the king gave consent for every noble freely choose their religion. Peasants were forced to adopt the religion of their master. The Lutheran doctrine spread throughout Germany, Sweden, Norway and Denmark.
Protestant ideas were also adopted in Switzerland. In Geneva, at the preaching of John Calvin, Protestantism has undergone a redesign and further radicalization. Calvin developed the theory of predestination. For the city of Geneva, with a developed trade and a powerful bourgeoisie, this doctrine meant the recognition of the wealth and labor of dealers as blessed in the eyes of God situation. Calvin became a true political leader and established, rigidly, the rules to be followed by Calvinists.
England, under the reign of Henry VIII, met a new religion called Anglicanism, which recognized the king as supreme head of the Church and the State. The break with the Vatican was mainly due to political factors: Henry VIII wanted to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, sister of the Spanish king. Catherine had become sterile without leaving male heirs to ensure the royal succession.
The Protestant movement has reduced the influence of the Roman Church in several countries and led to the loss of their lands in these areas.
The rapid expansion of Protestantism and the pressure of Catholics for the moralization of religion made a reaction to affirm the Catholic faith arise. This movement was led by the Capuchin Order, who lived in traditional austerity, and Cardinal Ximenes, the University of Salamanca. But the Church could only reassert itself definitively after the promulgation of the resolutions of the Council of Trent (collected between 1545 and 1563 in the town of Trento, Italy), which established the rejection of Protestantism, the maintenance of the seven sacraments, the mandatory use of Latin in the Mass, maintenance of celibacy for priests, order the sale of indulgences and the restoration of the Holy Inquisition courts for prosecution of acts and ideas contrary to Catholic thought.
The moral rehabilitation of the Church stopped the advance of Protestantism, but did not prevent the division of doctrines. From the Counter-Reformation, the world was no longer subjected to the supremacy of the Roman Church.

Conteúdo completo disponível em:


Prédios mais altos do mundo

Assalto - Carlos Drummond de Andrade

Bacias hidrográficas do estado de São Paulo

Bacias hidrográficas - São Paulo - Conheça seu Estado (História e Geografia)

Santa Catarina - Conheça seu Estado (História e Geografia)

O espaço geográfico e sua organização

A organização do espaço geográfico brasileiro

Grandes Esperanças - Charles Dickens - PDF

O Alienista PDF

Just Go #JustGo - Viagem Volta ao Mundo

Boa Vista - Roraima RR - Brasil

Aldeia Tuyuka - Manaus - Amazonas AM - Brasil

Planta - Atividades Educativas para crianças

Idade das Religões - Religião História

Mato Grosso do Sul - Conheça seu Estado (História e Geografia)

Atividades extrativistas do Mato Grosso do Sul

Body Like A Back Road - Sam Hunt

Malibu - Miley Cyrus

Quincas Borba

Dom Casmurro

Esaú e Jacó


Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas

Livros em PDF para Download

Anne Frank PDF

anne frank pdf

biblia pdf

Bíblia Sagrada - João Ferreira de Almeida - Bíblia

Bíblia Sagrada - Católica

Sanderlei Silveira

Sanderlei Silveira

Sanderlei Silveira

Sanderlei Silveira

Sanderlei Silveira

Sanderlei Silveira

Sanderlei Silveira

Lista de BLOGs by Sanderlei Silveira

And So Did I - Isaac Joslyn Cox

The Cold Heaven - William Butler Yeats

As festas populares em Santa Catarina SC

Áreas de preservação no estado de São Paulo SP

Os símbolos do estado do Rio de Janeiro RJ

A Guerra do Contestado PR

Pantanal – Patrimônio Natural da Humanidade MS

Assalto - Carlos Drummond de Andrade

Amor é fogo que arde sem se ver - Poesia

O navio negreiro - Poesia

Mitologia Grega

Antífona - Poema, Poesia

OPEP seguiu cumprindo acordo de redução de oferta de petróleo

Despacito letra e Tradução

Ursa Maior - Macunaíma - Mário de Andrade

Salmos - Capítulo 22 - Bíblia Online

Mercado Municipal Adolpho Lisboa - Manaus - Amazonas AM - Brasil

Mein Kampf PDF

Romeo and Juliet - William Shakespeare - AudioBook

Budismo moderno

The Second Coming - William Butler Yeats

The Road Not Taken - Robert Frost

Ozymandias - Percy Bysshe Shelley

Curso de Espanhol Online - Gratis e Completo

Curso de Inglês - Gratis e Completo

Crônica dos burros - Machado de Assis

History in 1 Minute

Artur de Azevedo - Contos

Audio Livro - Sanderlei

Contos de Eça de Queirós

Diva - José de Alencar - Audiobook

Educação Infantil - Nível 1 (crianças entre 4 a 6 anos)

Educação Infantil - Nível 2 (crianças entre 5 a 7 anos)

Educação Infantil - Nível 3 (crianças entre 6 a 8 anos)

Educação Infantil - Nível 4 (crianças entre 7 a 9 anos)

Educação Infantil - Nível 5 (crianças entre 8 a 10 anos)

Educação Infantil - Nível 6 (crianças entre 9 a 11 anos)

Euclides da Cunha - Os Sertões (Áudio Livro)

Historia en 1 Minuto

Lima Barreto - Contos (Áudio Livro - Audiobook)

Livros em PDF para Download (Domínio Público) - Sanderlei

A Mão e a Luva - Machado de Assis

Crônica - Machado de Assis

Dom Casmurro - Machado de Assis

Esaú e Jacó - Machado de Assis

Helena - Machado de Assis

Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas - Machado de Assis

Papéis Avulsos - Machado de Assis

Poesia - Machado de Assis

Quincas Borba - Machado de Assis

Teatro - Machado de Assis

O Diário de Anne Frank

SAP - Course Free Online

Totvs - Datasul - Treinamento Online (Gratuito)

No comments:

Post a Comment