Tuesday, May 23, 2017

24. Renaissance


The period known as the Renaissance followed the Middle Ages and led to the modern era. The word derives from the Latin meaning to make birth and refers to the revival of Greco-Roman culture. Artists and intellectual figures of the Renaissance consciously rejected the ideas of the Middle Ages and sought inspiration in classical models.
In the Middle Ages people believed aspects and facts of life and history in accordance with their religious ideals. For them, the earthly life and the historical events are explained by the will of God, a higher being. All science, literature and art of that era depended on religious thought.
However, during the thirteenth century, Italy and the rest of Europe began to change their thinking, turning their attention to a concrete and earthly life, where man came to have importance as the main protagonist of events and determining himself its will.
In the Renaissance, the world appears as a setting of human actions, and not as an expression of divine will. The nature also attracts attention and becomes the object of observations and studies by the Renaissance.
The word Renaissance indicates, in all its aspects, the pursuit of economic, social and cultural life that happened in Italy and then the rest of Europe.
The Renaissance began in Italy, with the development of cities and commerce, which housed noble lords, like Lorenzo de Medici of Florence, the Gonzaga, the city of Mantova, the Sforza of Milan, and many others noble lords, enjoying economic prosperity, decided to finance and protect artists, scientists, and writers.

The main causes of the Renaissance were:

  • The discovery of the Americas and the Great Navigations brought new cultural and scientific experiments.
  • The humanism that makes responsible for yourself and no longer subject to the divine will man.
  • The fall of Constantinople, the important capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, medieval commercial and cultural center. Many intellectuals of Constantinople headed to Italy after his fall.
  • The support of patrons, wealthy gentlemen who patronized artists and literati.
  • The invention of printing: The books would no longer manuscripts, which would facilitate the dissemination of culture.
The main features of the Renaissance were: the creation, originality, new ideals, artistic and intellectual renewal and return to Greco-Roman culture.
The Renaissance was a historical phenomenon that has revived values, create new ones and brought the awakening of new moments in literature, art and science.
The society of the time took a lot of Renaissance culture, which today comes to us. The Renaissance was undoubtedly the dawn of the Modern Age.

Literary Revival

The invention of printing in 1450 by the German Johannes Gutenberg, was responsible for the printing of the Bible, and so on, many books arose, facilitating contact with the culture of readers.
  • Italy - Dante Alighieri (1265-1321): He participated in the political life of the city of Florence, but was exiled for political reasons. Wrote the Divine Comedy.
  • Italy - Nickola Machiavelli (1469-1527): His great work is The Prince, in it he states his political doctrine.
  • France - Michel Montaigne (1533-1592): his main work is testing. In it, he comments and analyzes the behavior, reactions of man and the problems of his time.
  • England - Thomas More (1478-1535): his masterpiece is Utopia. It is a political and social novel, in which he advises men to follow the State. The state is the common good and it will come safety and security for all.
  • England - William Shakespeare (1564-1616): English poet and playwright, author of over 40 plays, 154 sonnets and 2 poems. Among the pieces include: Romeo and Juliet, The Merchant of Venice, Dreams of a Summer Night, Macbeth, King Lear.
  • Spain - Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) : his masterpiece is Don Quixote of La Mancha . She recounts the misadventures of a ruined knight, Don Quixote , representing the dream and adventure, and Sancho Panza his faithful squire , in his simplicity of the peasant .
  • Portugal - Luis de Camoes (1524-1580): His great work is The Lusiads, published in 1572, dedicated to King Dom Sebastian.
  • Netherlands - Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536): his main work is The Praise of Folly. In this work he satirizes the Church and society of his time. It is considered the father of modern humanism.

Artistic Renaissance

The main feature of Renaissance painting is liberation. The men of the Renaissance felt the center of the universe, exposing your own personality to the world around them, seeking laws of balance and harmony to imitate her in life and in art.
  • Italy - Brunelleschi (1377-1446): Italian sculptor and architect. It was he who discovered the laws of central perspective, this being one of the factors that helped in the development of Italian Renaissance art.
  • Italy - Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): was a famous painter, sculptor, architect, mathematician, scientist, musician and inventor. His most famous works are the Last Supper and Mona Lisa or Gioconda.
  • Italy - Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564): painter, sculptor, architect and Italian poet. His greatness as a painter is present in the painting of the Sistine Chapel, telling the story of Genesis and around Doomsday, masterpiece of religious art in the Renaissance. As a sculptor, the highlight is their statues Pieta, David and Moses.
  • Italy - Donatello, Donato di Betto Bardi born (1386-1466): Italian sculptor, considered the initiator of realism in sculpture with several papers.
  • Belgium - Rubens, born Peter Paul Rubens (1577): the greatest of Flemish painters. Main screens: Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus Rape of Europa , Heart of Marie de Medici and others.

Scientific Renaissance

  • Poland - Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543): his work revolved around the celestial orbit revolution. He disputed that the Earth was the center of the universe and gave the idea of the heliocentric theory.
  • England - Isaac Newton (1642-1727): discovered the law of universal gravitation.
  • Italy - Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): was a great researcher in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy. Studied the acceleration of falling bodies in and announced the principle of inertia.
  • France - René Descartes (1595-1650): called the father of rationalism, created analytic geometry and made discoveries in physics, writing the treatise on light.
  • Germany - Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): studied the laws of the movements of the planets and managed to present theories about the planet Mars.

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