Saturday, December 23, 2017

11. Greek Philosophy

       

Western philosophy arose in ancient Greece in the sixth century BC and can say that philosophy emerges as a kind of break with the mythical worldview. While the myths were organized in stories, pictures and particular beings, philosophy inaugurated argumentative, abstract and universal discourse. Moreover, unlike the authors of myths, the Greek philosophers tried to develop worldviews that were free of logical contradictions and imperfections.
The early Greek philosophers, often called pre-Socratic, devoted to speculations on the constitution and origin of the world. Thales of Miletus was the first thinker who can call philosopher. Like other pre-Socratic philosophers, Thales was dedicated to characterize the principle or matter that the world is made. Argued that this principle was water.
After the pre-Socratic already in the classical period, philosophy was linked to a privileged historical moment - that of classical Greece. During this period, comprising the 5 centuries BC and 4 centuries BC, Greek civilization met its apogee with the splendor of the city of Athens. This city-state dominated Greece with its military and economic power and adopting democracy as a political system, Athens witnessed a remarkable flourishing of the arts and sciences. It was this historical period that gave rise to the thought of the three greatest philosophers of antiquity: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
Socrates did not leave a written work, but know his thinking through the works of his disciple Plato. This did not write a systematic work, organized logically and abstractly, but rather a rich array of texts in dialogue form, in which different topics are discussed. Plato's dialogues are organized around the central figure of his master - that Socrates was sentenced to death in Athens in the year 399 BC.
After the death of Socrates in 387 BC, Plato founded the Academy in Athens, the first university in the world that would be closed in 529 AD by Emperor Justinian which serves as a landmark for the end of the Greco- Roman era.
Already Aristotle founds the Lyceum in Athens, a rival school of Plato's Academy in the year 335 BC Aristotle unlike Plato created a systematic and orderly work. The Aristotelian philosophy covers various fields of knowledge, such as logic, rhetoric, poetry, metaphysics, and the various sciences.
In the transition from the fourth century to the third century BC, during the Hellenistic period, formed two philosophical schools whose teachings represent a clear shift of emphasis in relation to Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Peripatetic school. His concern is mainly personal redemption. Both Epicurus and his followers as to Zeno of Citium and other main stoics aim of philosophy should be to obtain the serenity of mind. The two schools also resemble the belief that this goal involves a sort of harmony between the individual and nature, but differ as to how to accomplish this harmonization.
The initial period of philosophy is classified as Ancient Philosophy and extending to the decadence of the Roman Empire in the fifth century AD ushering in Medieval Philosophy.




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Sunday, December 17, 2017

10. Greek Mythology

       


Greek mythology is related to the myths of ancient Greece that
in his time the Greeks regarded as a religion and was used to explain the origins of the world with a wide variety of gods, heroes and other mythological creatures study. Over time, these myths were expressed through an extensive collection of narratives that constitute the Greek literature and its main works epic poems Iliad and Odyssey of Homer and also the Teogonia and Works and Days of Hesiod .
Greek mythology has no absolute schedule, but we can put together a chronology of the mythological story dividing it into three major periods:
  1. Myth of origin or age of gods: the Teogonia, the birth of the gods, the myths about the origin of the planet of the gods and the human race.
  2. Era when men and gods mingle freely: history of early interactions between gods, demigods and mortals together.
  3. Age of Heroes: where divine activity was more limited. Period of heroic legends like the Trojan War and its aftermath.
The Greek mythology is very broad and has many characters from the primordial gods, titans and gods of the Olympian passing by the demigods, heroes among several others. Below is a short summary of Greek mythology and its principal gods and heroes.
Everything begins with Chaos, the primal void and darkness that precedes all existence. It arises Gaia (the personification of the Earth), and other primary divine beings: Eros (Love, organizing principle of the world), Tartarus (underworld), Erebus (the personification of darkness), predominating over the regions of space just above the night robes of his sister Nyx (the personification of the night).
Gaia alone generated Uranus (Heaven), Points (Sea) and Óreas (Mountains). Then Uranus and Gaia fertilizes primarily born of this union titans, and soon Cyclops. Conduit, Uranus, did not allow them to leave the interior of Gaia and they remained obedient to his father. Only Cronus, the youngest, castrated his father with a sickle produced from the bowels of Mother Gaia and threw his genitals into the sea, producing the goddess Aphrodite and thus releasing all brothers stuck inside the mother. Without interference from the father, Cronus became the king of the Titans with his sister Rhea as the spouse and the other Titans as his court.
When Cronus took the place of Uranus became so wicked as his father. With his sister Rhea, sired the first Olympian gods, but soon devoured them while born of fear that one of them dethrone. But Zeus, the youngest son, with his mother's help, managed to escape the fate and waged war against its progenitor, whose winner would gain the throne of the gods. At the end, with the strength of the Cyclopes, Zeus won and condemned Cronus and the other Titans in Tartarus prison, after forcing his father to disgorge his siblings.
After this dismissal of the Titans, a new pantheon of gods and goddesses came. Among the principal Greek gods were the Olympians, residing on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece, under the eye of Zeus. However, the Greek gods, though immortal and powerful were essentially human, had magnitudes and human weaknesses such as violence, jealousy, hate and envy, although they owned the ideal physical bodies. The gods also were related to humans in stories of love between a god and a mortal emerging demigods or heroes like Hercules, Achilles and Perseus.

Below the list of Olympians with their Greek and Roman names and their functions :
  • Zeus / Jupiter - King of the gods and ruler of Mount Olympus, god of the sky and storms. The youngest son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea.
  • Hera / Juno - Queen of the gods. Goddess of marriage and motherhood. Wife and sister of Zeus .
  • Poseidon / Neptune - God of the seas, storms, earthquakes and horses. Brother of Zeus and Hades.
  • Demeter / Ceres - Goddess of fertility, agriculture, nature and the seasons. Sister of Zeus.
  • Hades / Pluto - God of the dead, the underworld and the riches of the earth. Brother of Zeus and Poseidon .
  • Hestia / Vesta - virgin goddess of home and hearth. Sister of Zeus.
  • Aphrodite / Venus - Goddess of love, beauty and sexuality. Daughter of Uranus or other traditions of Zeus and Dionne.
  • Apollo / Phoebus - the sun god, healing, plague, arts, music, poetry and prophecy. Artemis is his twin sister. Son of Zeus and Leto.
  • Ares / Mars - god of war. Son of Zeus and Hera.
  • Artemis / Diana - Virgin Goddess of the hunt and the moon. Twin sister of Apollo.
  • Athena / Minerva - virgin goddess of wisdom, crafts and military strategy. Daughter of Zeus and Metis.
  • Dionysus / Bacchus - god of wine, parties and ecstasy. Son of Zeus and the mortal Semele.
  • Hephaestus / Vulcan - Blacksmith of the gods, god of fire and metallurgy. Son of Zeus and Hera.
  • Hermes / Mercury - Messenger of the gods, god of commerce and thieves. Son of Zeus and the nymph Maia.

Greek mythology has exerted a major influence on culture, the arts and literature of Western civilization mainly in the Renaissance period and remains as part of the heritage and language of the West.


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9. Ancient Greece

       



The historical period called Ancient Greece is only part of the story of the Greek people spanning from the first Olympic games in 776 BC to the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. But the first civilization to appear in Greece was the Aegean civilization better known as the Minoan civilization in the period between 2,600 BC to 1,450 BC, but little is known about the Minoans and their fall is related to the invasion of Mycenaean.
The Mycenaean period that corresponds to the period between 1,600 BC to 1,100 BC when the Greek culture is formed from an adaptation of the Minoan culture in some respects, for example, the system of spelling that Minoans used symbols to represent the new language Greek. During this period already spoke Greek more there was no political unity, with several Mycenaean kingdoms. It is in this period referred to in Homer's epic work and much of Greek mythology.
Around 1,100 BC to the end of the Mycenaean civilization begins the period of the Dark Ages would to 750 BC. During this period the Greek language ceased to be written, international trade was minimal and ceramic art there was a significant setback. The collapse of the Mycenaean coincided with the fall of several other large empires like the Egyptian and Hittite empire.
With the rise of the first Greek city-states around the ninth century BC, the epic poems of Homer and the first instances of Greek alphabetic writing initiate the Archaic period or also known as Ancient Greece that has as starting point the date of 776 BC with the realization of the first Olympic Games and goes until 323 BC with the death of Alexander the Great. The period in which way the culture of Greece that represent the foundation of Western civilization in influencing various aspects such as language, politics, education, philosophy, art and architecture. It is also during this period that most Greek names known in today's world lived like the poet Homer, political Philip II and Alexander and Socrates, Plato and Aristotle philosophers.
Inside the Archaic period there is a subdivision called the Classic period between 480 BC corresponds with the battle of Salamis, where the Greeks unite to fight the Persian army ending in Greek victory until 359 BC when Philip II was crowned king of Macedon. This period is dominated by Sparta a militaristic oligarchy and Athens, an aristocratic democracy, and externally there is the rise of the Persian Empire.
After the end of Medical wars with the expulsion of the Medes and Persian peoples of Greece Athens becomes the main city of the Greek world rivaling Sparta other major power. Each form a political and military alliance with other Greek cities, in the case of Sparta was the Peloponnesian League and in the case of Athens the Dalian League beginning a period of conflict between 431 BC to 404 BC called the Peloponnesian War.
This period of 27 years of war between Sparta and Athens resulted in a weakened and devastated Greece facilitating the Macedonian dominion over much of Greece on the command of King Philip II of Macedon.
After the death of Philip II in 336 BC, his son Alexander assumes power and continue the expansionist policy of his father becoming the most famous conqueror of the ancient world with a vast empire that stretched from Asia Minor to Afghanistan, and also to Egypt. This period of Ancient Greece ends with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC in Babylon, starting the Hellenistic period.
Hellenism begins in 323 BC and ends in 146 BC with the annexation of the peninsula and the Greek islands by Rome. During this period the empire of Alexander was divided into three parts by his top generals who would fight each other for possession of the empire.

Resume


PeriodCivilizationStartEnd
PrehistoricAegean or Minoan2,600 BC1,450 BC
Mycenaean (Bronze Age )Mycenaean1,600 BC1,100 BC
Dark AgeGreek1,100 BC750 BC
Ancient GreeceGreek776 BC323 BC
ClassicMacedonian480 BC359 BC
HellenisticGreek323 BC146 BC
The Greeks were conquered militarily by the Romans in 146 BC, but it was the Romans who were conquered by Greek culture and responsible to pass it to various parts of Europe.
Another legacy of the Greeks was the list of the seven wonders of the ancient world attributed to the Greek Antipater who wrote about the structures in a poem, namely: Khufu Pyramid, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Statue of Zeus at Olympia, Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, mausoleum of Halicarnassus, Colossus of Rhodes and Lighthouse of Alexandria.

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8. Hebrews - Judaism

       

The Hebrews also known as Israelites and later as Jews were a people of the Palestinian region. The first reference to the Hebrews rushes around 1,200 BC, during the reign of Pharaoh Merneptah. At that time, some people known as "Israelites" have inhabited the region of Palestine. But according to the Hebrew traditions, its origins were linked to the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob that would have started the lineage of the Hebrews and remembered as being responsible for the first reported pacts with God in the book of Genesis.
But the contents of the book of Genesis is difficult dating and its composition is assigned to different groups and times and being written later. There are several anachronisms in this book, for example, reference to the Philistines that helps date the Biblical account, since only the Philistines arrived in the region from 1,200 BC and the mention of Aramaeans who just reached the region in the tenth century BC and references some cities like Ur and Dan leading to the conclusion that probably much of Genesis was developed around 700 BC.
Another main event of the Hebrew people and the origin of Judaism is that the episode of the Exodus refers to a biblical episode to which the Jews enslaved in Egypt, have managed to escape the foreign land, returning to their homeland, Canaan, under the leadership of Moses leading 40 years. It is during the beginning of this journey that according to biblical accounts would have been the covenant between the Hebrews and their God on Mount Sinai by Moses receiving the Ten Commandments with the board. But there are no archaeological sources to corroborate the existence of Moses and of any human settlement at the exodus and the biblical account mentions only cities that existed long afterwards. The final event that ends with the conquest of Canaan where the Hebrews no longer a nomadic people to become a people with a land. This region would become the uniting element of this people, as would have been given by God and according to reports the Hebrew Bible would have gained through force.
The subsequent occupation of Canaan period was dominated by the government of individuals who were known as Judges in most military leaders, whose deeds are remembered in heroic fashion by the Hebrews. But it is difficult to write a continuous history of this period, since it features many chronological problems. The first judge would have been Otnael and the last would be a prophet Samuel that Saul would have enshrined as the first king and the beginning of the Hebrew monarchy.
It is in this period around 1,000 BC the Hebrew occupation of its territory is severely shaken by the invasions of the Philistines people and begins to be a need to unite around a stronger political figure as a monarch and King Saul is consecrated and spends much of his government chasing the Philistines and dies launching on his sword after a failed campaign against the Philistines. His fourth son, Ishbaal, takes his place for a few years before being murdered.
The successor of the Hebrew monarchy is David and after Solomon his son. It were during these two reigns that the Hebrews had their days of glory and a kingdom. But this period is small and after the death of Solomon in about 935 BC, his kingdom was divided into two states, Israel and Judah, the latter, the Jews inherited the name. According to scholars there was a great Hebrew kingdom and these leaders were enlarged at a later period and the reality is probably his achievements were much more modest. You must also keep in mind that no source of that time refers to either of the two kings and the kingdom of Israel.
After splitting into two states, Israel and Judah, there was a Omrida Dynasty, strongly recognized by archaeological documents as a powerful dynasty. Recognized as a cruel monarch by the biblical authors, was Ahab the son of Omri, however one of the greatest Hebrew kings put his dynasty were forgotten , while the period of Solomon was glorified on the biblical literature. In fact, most of the major archeological evidence of Israel's history is associated with this king and his successors, not Solomon.
The kingdom of Israel lasted until 721 BC with the Assyrian conquest of the kingdom of Judah is also conquered by the Babylonians in 598 BC, it became the Hebrew slaves, this period being known as the Babylonian Captivity.
The Babylonian captivity ended in 539 BC when Cyrus the Persian emperor conquered Babylon and freed the Jews who returned to Palestine and rebuilt the temple in Jerusalem that had been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. In 332 BC the Persians were defeated by Alexander the Great and the Macedonians and Greeks came to dominate Palestine, followed by Roman rule, from 63 BC After the containment of the Jewish revolt began in the mid-60 AD and the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD, the Jews dispersed throughout the world and the state of Israel was created in Palestine again only in 1948 by the UN.



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7. Ancient Egypt

       



One of the first great civilizations of mankind Egyptian civilization has left a lasting legacy to the world with a rich culture and great monuments. Began around 5,500 BC with small tribes that have developed in the fertile valley of the Nile with a firm control of agriculture and animal husbandry. This civilization was divided into two kingdoms called Upper and Lower Egypt were to be gradually merging and forming a centralized government in the hands of a single ruler known as pharaoh.
The timeline of the pharaohs was divided into 30 dynasties and began with the legendary pharaoh Menes who allegedly united the two kingdoms of Egypt around 3,150 BC and starting Early Dynastic Period, and before this milestone is considered as pre-dynastic period.
The next part is called the Old Kingdom when a breakthrough occurs in architecture, art and technology and there was a trend for building pyramids as funerary monuments to the pharaohs. This period of almost 5 centuries apogee is interrupted with a gradual decrease in the power of the pharaoh and a period of 140 years of famine and strife known as the First Intermediate period. This cycle occurs twice more with the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom succeeded by an interim period until the conquest of Egypt by the Persians around 525 BC This first period of Persian rule over Egypt is also known as Dynasty XXVII.
In 332 BC Egypt would be delivered by the Persians without a fight to Alexander the Great, who was welcomed by the Egyptians as a deliverer. And then I Ptolemy, one of Alexander's generals, became king of Egypt and initiating the Ptolemaic Dynasty. This period is interrupted when Egypt turns province of the Roman Empire in 30 BC, after the defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII.
One of the main achievements of the civilization of ancient Egypt was in the field of architecture with the construction of the pyramids, especially the Great Pyramid of Giza (Great Pyramid of Giza) which is considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and the only extant today. It was built around 2,550 BC and has 147 feet tall. This pyramid was the largest man-made construction for over four thousand years, only surpassed in 1889 with the construction of the Eiffel Tower.

Chronology of Ancient Egypt


PeriodDynastyStart
Pre Dynastic Period5.500 BC
Early DynasticI - II3.150 BC
Old EmpireIII IV V VI2.700 BC
1st Intermediate PeriodVII VIII IX X XI2.300 BC
Eastern EmpireXI XII2.000 BC
2nd Intermediate PeriodXIII XIV XV XVI XVII1.780 BC
New KingdomXVIII XIX XX1.550 BC
3rd Intermediate PeriodXXI XXII XXIII XXIV XXV1.070 BC
Low SeasonXXVI XXVII XXVIII XXIX XXX664 BC
Greco-Roman Period332 BC

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